American Sociological Association
The American Sociological Association Style Guide is intended for
authors who are preparing manuscripts for publication in ASA journals.
This handout is intended for students who are instructed to use
"ASA style" when writing research papers. Consult the
ASA Style Guide for additional or more detailed information
(ref desk HM 73 A54 1997).
- All text (including footnotes & references) must be doubled
spaced and in a 12 point type.
- Margins must be at least 1 Â¼ inches on all four sides
- A separate title page including title of paper, name(s) &
institution(s) of authors, word count for the manuscript (including
footnotes and references), title footnote (includes names, addresses
of authors, acknowledgements, credits, and grants)
- If required, on a separate page provide a short (150-200 word)
abstract headed with the title.
- Begin the text of the paper on a separate page headed with the
title of the paper.
Citations in Text:
Basic form for citations in the text include
the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. Include
page number when you quote directly from the work or refer to specific
- If authors name is in the text, follow it with the publication
year in parentheses
When Chu (1977) studied
- If the authors name is not in the text, enclose the last
name and year in parentheses:
When the study was completed
- If the page number is to be included it follows the year of
publication after a colon:
- For three authors, give all last names in the first citation
in the text; afterwards use the first name and et al.; for more
than three names, use the first authors last name plus et
(Smith, Garcia and Lee 1954) (Snow et al. 1989)
- Quotations in the text must begin and end with quotation marks;
the citation follows the end quote mark and precedes the period.
"In 1999, however, the data were reported by more specific
job types which showed that technologically oriented jobs
paid better" (Hildenbrand 1999:47).
Footnotes & Endnotes:
- Try to avoid footnotes, but if necessary, use footnotes to cite
material of limited availability or to add information presented
in a table.
- Footnotes should be numbered consecutively throughout the essay
with superscript Arabic numerals and included at the bottom of
the paper or in a separate section headed "Endnotes."
Reference List (Bibliography):
- References follow the text and footnotes in a separate section
- All references cited in the text must be listed and vice-versa.
- Remember references should be double-spaced.
- List references in alphabetical order by authors last
- Use hanging indention (see examples)
- Invert the authors name; if there are two or more authors,
invert only the first authors name.
- Arrange multiple items by the same author in order by year of
publication, earliest year first.
- Use six hyphens and a period(------.) in place of the name(s)
for repeated authorship.
- Distinguish works by the same author in the same year by adding
letters (e.g. 1993a, 1993b, 1993c).
- Use italics for book and periodical titles (underline if italics
are not available).
- If no date is available use "N.d." in place of the
- Include both city and state for place of publication except
for New York using U.S. Postal Code abbreviations. For
foreign cities provide the name of the country.
Examples of References:
Books: Basic form for a book entry
is 1-Authors last name, followed by a comma and the first
name and middle initial, ending with a period. 2- Year of publication
followed by a period. 3- Title of book italicized ending with a
period. 4- Place of publication, followed by a colon and name of
publisher ending with a period.
De Anda, Roberto M. 1995. Chicanas and Chicanos in Contemporary
Society. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Herrera-Sobek, MarÃa and Helena MarÃa Viramontes. 1995. Chicana
: On Word and Film. Berkeley, CA: Third Woman Press.
-Chapter in Book
Nathan, Peter E. and Raymond S. Niaura. 1987. "Prevention
Problems." Pp. 333-354 in Treatment and Prevention
Alcohol Problems: A Resource Manual, edited by W.M.
Orlando, FL: Academic Press, Inc.
Manual of Style. 1993. 14th ed. Chicago, IL:
University of Chicago Press.
List books with no author alphabetically by the first significant
word in the title.
Journal Articles in Print:
Basic form for a journal
article is 1- Authors last name, followed by a comma and the
first name and middle initial ending with a period. 2- Year of publication
followed by a period. 3-Title of article in quotations and ending
with a period inside the closing quotation mark. 4-Name of journal
in italics 5- volume number followed by colon, page number(s) and
period. Use the issue number following the volume number in parenthesis
or exact date for journal article prior to the volume number for journals
that do not number pages consecutively within a volume.
Garcia, Alma M. 1998. "An Intellectual Odyssey: Chicana/Chicano
Moving into the Twenty-first Century." Journal of American
Ethnic History 18:109.
-Two or More Authors
Exum, William H., Robert J. Menges, Bari Watkins, and Patricia
1984. "Making it at the top: Women and minority faculty
academic labor market." American Behavioral Scientist
Newspaper & Magazine Articles in Print:
Basic form for a newspaper or magazine entry is 1- Authors
last name, followed by a comma and the first name and middle initial,
ending with a period. 2- Year of publication followed by a period.
3-Title of article in quotations and ending with a period inside
the closing quotation mark. 4-Name of newspaper/magazine in italics
5-date of publication followed by a comma 6- page number of article
within the publication ending with a period.
Jana, Reena. 2000. "Preventing culture clashes - As the
IT workforce grows
more diverse, managers must improve awareness without creating
inconsistency." InfoWorld, April 24, pp. 95.
Rimland, Bernard. 2000. "Do children's shots invite autism?"
Times, April 26, A13.
Articles Retrieved in Electronic Format
-From Commercial Databases
Graham, Lorie M. 1998. "The Past Never Vanishes: A Contextual
the Existing Indian Family Doctrine" American Indian
Review, 23:1. Retrieved May 25, 1999 Available:
LEXIS-NEXIS Academic Universe, Law Reviews.
-Web Version of Newspapers
Clary, Mike. 2000. "Vieques Protesters Removed Without Incident."
Angeles Times, May 5. Retrieved May 5, 2000
-Web Base Journals
Smith, Herman W. and Takako Nomi. 2000. "Is Amae the Key
Understanding Japanese Culture?." Electronic Journal
Sociology 5:1. Retrieved May 5, 2000
-Information Posted on a Web Site
American Sociological Association. 2000. "Scholarship of
Learning Workshop." Washington, DC: American Sociological
Association, Retrieved May 5, 2000
-Government Documents: Since the nature of public documents
is so varied, the form of entry for documents cannot be standardized.
The essential rule is to provide sufficient information so that
the reader can locate the reference easily. For example see the
United States. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development. 1999.
Rehab a home
with HUD's 203(k) : HUD and FHA are on your side.
Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development.
-Dissertations & Theses
Valencia, Albert. 1995. "An examination of selected characteristics
Mexican-American battered women and implications for service
providers." Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Education,
University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA.
For other more information please see ASA Style Guide (ref desk
HM 73 A54 1997).
This Web-based guide was authored by Romelia
Salinas. If you have questions,comments,or suggestions about the
content of this Library Web page, please send them to Romelia at: