APA Style Guide

APA Format–5th Edition

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 a. p. a. book coverOVERVIEW– The APA style, as presented in this handout, is widely accepted in the Social Sciences. The American Psychological Association (APA) citation format requires parenthetical citations within the text rather than endnotes or footnotes. Citation in the text provides information, usually the name of the author and the date of publication, to lead the reader to the accompanying bibliographical entry. Complete information about each source cited in the text is supplied in a list called "References" found at the end of the research paper.

NOTE: This guide is issued in single space; however, APA style requires double space throughout (e.g., title page, text, references, everything.)

Below, is an example of a few sentences from an article (Lapsley, D. & Edgerton, J., Fall 2002) in APA format that appeared in the Journal of Counseling and Development. Look at the three APA style parenthetical citations in this text, and then look at how the full citations would appear at the end of the paper in the reference list.

Once established, working models are said to be "core features of personality that are then carried into new relationships" (Collins & Read, 1994, p. 56). Indeed, one may seek out partners that conform to one's internal working model of the self-in-relationship (Collins & Read, 1990)....Many assessment strategies now exist for measuring individual differences in adult attachment styles, using categories that parallel the attachment status classifications used in research on infancy. According to the fourfold scheme developed by Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991), the secure attachment style is characterized by a working model of the self as positive and an expectation that others are trustworthy, reliable, and available.

References

Bartholomew, K., & Howrowitz, L. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of the four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 226-245.

Collins, N., & Read, S. (1990). Adult attachment, working models and relationship quality in dating couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 644-663.


Collins, N., & Read, S. (1994). Cognitive representations of attachment: The structure and function of working models. In K. Bartholomew & D. Perlman (Eds.), Attachment processes in adulthood: Advances in personal relationships (Vol. 5, pp. 53-90). London: Kingsley.

PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS – Parenthetical citation in the text provides information, usually the name of the author and the date of publication, to lead the reader to the accompanying bibliographical entry. Complete information about each source cited in the text is supplied in "References," placed at the end of the research paper. When constructing parenthetical documentation the rule is: the briefer the better! Try to incorporate most information into the text.

Author and Date Cited in Text (No Parenthetical Citation Necessary)
In a 1989 article, Gould explores some of Darwin's most effective metaphors.

Author Not Cited in Text
As metaphors for the workings of nature, Darwin used the tangled bank, the tree of life, and the face of nature (Gould, 1989).

Author Cited in Text
Gould (1989) attributes Darwin's success to his gift for making the appropriate metaphor.

Direct Quotation with Name of Author
Gould (1989) explains that Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life "to express the other form of interconnectedness–genealogical rather than ecological–and to illustrate both success and failure in the history of life" (p. 14).

Direct Quotation without Name of Author
Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life "to express the other form of interconnectedness–genealogical rather than ecological" (Gould, 1989, p. 14).

REFERENCES – Each of the above five sample sentences would lead readers of a correctly formatted APA style paper to this reference at the end:

Gould, S. J. (1989). The wheel of fortune and the wedge of progress. Natural History, 89(3), 14-21.

ITALICS OR UNDERLINING? If you are typing your paper or otherwise using software that does not permit use of italics, APA format permits underlining. Here is the same reference using underlining instead of italics.

Gould, S. J. (1989). The wheel of fortune and the wedge of progress. Natural History, 89(3), 14-21.


COMMONLY USED APA REFERENCE CITATION RULES – The following information on reference citation rules is divided into five sections. These five sections show some of the more commonly used APA reference citations rules. Only a small number of these rules can be demonstrated in this brief guide. For more detailed information you need to consult the 5th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, call number BF76.7 P83 2001, available at the reference and reserve desks (see more about this at the end of this guide). To make it easier for you to refer to the original source, the terminology used below is the same as that used in the 5th edition of the Manual.

ABBREVIATIONS
Gives examples of abbreviations that can be used in APA style reference citations.
PERIODICALS
Gives general form and examples of APA style reference citations for periodical articles published in journals, magazines, newpapers, etc.
NONPERIODICALS
Gives general form and examples of APA style reference citations for nonperiodicals published separately as books, reports, brochures, audiovisual media, etc.
ONLINE PERIODICALS
Gives general form and examples of APA style reference citations for periodical articles retrieved from aggregated databases (e.g., EBSCOHost Academic Source Elite, ABI/INFORM, LEXIS/NEXIS, etc.), online journals, etc.
ONLINE DOCUMENTS
Gives general form and examples of APA style reference citations for other, nonperiodical online documents retrieved from Web sites, Internet newsgroups, e-mail-based discussion groups, etc.


ABBREVIATIONS – Here are approved abbreviations for use in reference lists:

chap. chapter   ed. edition
Rev. ed. revised edition 2nd ed. second edition
Ed. (Eds) Editor (Editors) Trans. Translated by
n.d. no date p. (pp.) page (pages)
Vol. Volume (as in Vol. 3)  vols. volumes (as in 10 vols.)
No. Number Pt. Part
Suppl. Supplement Tech. Rep. Technical Report


JOURNALS, MAGAZINES, NEWSPAPERS, ETC. (PERIODICALS) – Here are examples of APA style reference citations for print-format articles published in journals, magazines, newpapers, and other periodicals

General Form – Periodicals [Published in Print Format]

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (1999). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxx-xxx.

One Author

Paivio, A. (1975). Perceptual comparisons through the mind's eye. Memory & Cognition, 3, 635-647.

Two to Six Authors + Journal Paginated by Issue

Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36.

(NOTE: Include the issue number in parentheses without italics following the volume number only if each issue is paginated separately, i.e., the pagination begins fresh with each issue. If all issues within a single volume are paginated continuously, do not include the issue number.)

Six or More Authors

Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L., et al. (2000). An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 843-856.

Magazine Article

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Beyond the melting pot. Time, 135, 28-31.

Review of a Book

Carmody, T. P. (1982). A new look at medicine from the social perspective [Review of the book Social contexts of health, illness, and patient care]. Contemporary Psychology, 27, 208-209.

Daily Newspaper Article + No Author + Discontinuous Pages

Generic Prozac debuts. (2001, August 3). The Washington Post, pp. E1, E4.

Newspaper Editorial

Stress, cops and suicide [Editorial]. (1993, December 1). New York Times, p. A22.



Editor + Entire Issue or Special Section

Barlow, D. H. (Ed.). (1991). Diagnoses, dimensions, and DSM-IV: The science of classification [Special issue]. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(3).


BOOKS, REPORTS, BROCHURES, AV MEDIA, ETC. (NONPERIODICALS) – Here are examples of APA style reference citations for [printed] nonperiodicals published separately as books, reports, brochures, audiovisual media, etc.

General Form – Nonperiodicals [Published in Print Format]

Author, A. A. (1999). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

By a Single Author

Nagel, P. C. (1992). The Lees of Virginia: Seven generations of an American family. New York: Oxford University Press.

By a Corporate Author + Published by Author

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

By Anonymous Author

Guidelines and application form for directors, 1990 summer seminar for school teachers. (1988). Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Humanities.

Article in a Book

Burghardt, G. M. (1984). On the origins of play. In P. K. Smith (Ed.), Play in animals and humans (pp. 5-42). Oxford, England: Basil Blackwell.

ERIC Document

Mead, J. V. (1992). Looking at old photographs: Investigating the teacher tales that novice teaches bring with them (Report No. NCRTL-RTR-92-4). East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teaching Learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 346 082)


Report + Government Printing Office (GPO)

National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Television Broadcast

Crystal, L. (Executive Producer). (1993, October 11). The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour. [Television broadcast]. New York and Washington, DC: Public Broadcasting Service.

Videotape

National Geographic Society (Producer). (1987). In the shadow of Vesuvius. [Videotape]. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society.


ONLINE JOURNALS, MAGAZINES, NEWSPAPERS, ETC. (PERIODICALS) – Here are examples of APA style reference citations for articles retrieved from online databases (e.g., EBSCOHost Academic Search, ABI/INFORM, JSTOR, LEXIS/NEXIS, etc.), online journals, etc.

NOTE: APA protocols for citing electronic information are evolving. For the latest information, consult the official APA Web site link given here. APA will update this page regularly as there are additions, changes, or clarifications to APA style. http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html
General Form – Online Periodicals

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (1999). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxx-xxx. Retrieved month day, year, from source.

Full-Text Article Retrieved from an Online Database

(NOTE: If the database provides a persistent URL, use the instructions for Article from E-journal website . Full Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) are usually not given with online databases since they often do not function in subsequent online sessions; instead, use database name.)

Senior, B. (1997). Team roles and team performance: Is there really a link? Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70, 241-258. Retrieved June 6, 2001, from ABI/INFORM Global (Proquest) database.

Dykeman, B. F. (1994). The effects of motivational orientation, self-efficacy, and feedback condition on test anxiety. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 21(2), 114-120. Retrieved June 4, 2001, from EBSCOHost Academic Search Elite database.

Garza, A. (1999, March 17). Siesta put to rest: Mexican tradition under siege. Boston Globe, p. A2. Retrieved June 3, 2001, from Newsstand (Proquest) database.

Stevenson, W., Maton, K. I. and Teti, D. M. (1999). Social support, relationship quality, and well-being among pregnant adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 22(1), 109-121. Retrieved June 3, 2001, from IDEAL database.

Article from E-journal website

(NOTE: Full URLs are given with e-journal website where the URL will function in subsequent online sessions to retrieve the same article. This also works for online resources with persistent URLs. Note there is no period at the end of a reference citation ending with a URL.)

Lodewijkx, H. F. M. (2001, May 23). Individual-group continuity in cooperation and competition under varying communication conditions. Current Issues in Social Psychology, 6 (12), 166-182. Retrieved September 14, 2001, from http://www.uiowa.edu/~grpproc/crisp/crisp.6.12.htm

Jacobson, J. W., Mulick, J. A., & Schwartz, A. A. (1995). A history of facilitated communication: Science, pseudoscience, and antiscience: Science working group on facilitated communication. American Psychologist, 50, 750-765. Retrieved June 6, 2001, from http://www.apa.org/journals/jacobson.html



ONLINE DOCUMENTS – Here are examples of APA style reference citations for other, nonperiodical online documents retrieved from websites, Internet newsgroups, e-mail-based discussion groups, etc.

General Form – Online Documents

Author, A. A. (1999). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from source.




Stand-alone Online Document

NAACP (1999, February 25). NAACP calls for Presidential order to halt police brutality crisis. Retrieved June 3, 2001, from http://www.naacp.org/president/releases/police_brutality.htm

(NOTE: Break a URL that goes to another line after a slash or before a period. Do not insert, or allow your word-processing program to insert, a hyphen at the break.)

Stand-alone Online Document + No Author Identified + No Date

GVU's 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved September 13, 2001, from http://www.gvu.gatech.edu/user_surveys/survey-1997-10/

Email Communications in Parenthetical Citations: Email communications should be cited as personal communictions. For example, an email communication from Jean Phinney would be cited in the text as

This information was verified a few days later (J. S. Phinney, personal communication, June 5, 1999).

No entry in "References" is needed.

Web Sites in Parenthetical Citations: To cite an entire Web site (but not a specific document within the site), it is sufficient to give the URL of the site in the text. For example:

Kidpsych is an excellent Web site for young children (http://www.kidpsych.org).

No entry in "References" is needed.


CAN'T FIND THE RIGHT RULE?

If you do not find a rule in this guide to fit the specific citation situation you are working on, you need to consult the 5th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, call number BF76.7 P83 2001, available at the reference and reserve desks. Reference citations rules are in Chapter Four, pages 215 through 281. Use pages 232 through 239 as an index to examples in this chapter. The number after each index entry refers to example numbers found from pages 240 through 286.