Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style

Overview: This handout will show you how to create endnotes or footnotes and a bibliography for both print and electronic formats using The Chicago Manual of Style. Endnotes or footnotes provide correct bibliographical citation for the sources noted by number in the text. Footnotes appear at the bottom of each page. Endnotes appear at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire paper. Consult The Chicago Manual of Style for additional or more detailed information (ref desk Z 253 U69 1993) or go to ONLINE! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Resources by Andrew Harnack and Eugene Kleppinger.

PRINT SOURCES
(N= footnote/endnote   B=bibliography)

BOOKS
Use a shortened format for subsequent references to the same work.

One author:
N           1. Emery Blackfoot, Chance Encounters (Boston: Serendipity Press,
        1987), 67.

N           2. Blackfoot, 97.

B           Blackfoot, Emery. Chance Encounters. Boston: Serendipity Press,
        1987.

Two authors:
N           3. Liam P. Unwin and Joseph Galloway, Peace in Ireland (Boston:
        Stronghope Press, 1990), 72.

N           4. Unwin and Galloway, 102.

B          Unwin, Liam P., and Joseph Galloway, Peace in Ireland. Boston:
        Stronghope Press, 1990.

More than three authors: For works having more than three authors, a note citation should give the name of the first-listed author followed by "et al." or "and others" without inverting punctuation. In the bibliography entry, the usual practice is to list all of the authors. The name of the first author is inverted.
N           5. Charlotte Marcus et al., Investigations into the Phenomenon of
       Limited-Field Criticism
(Boston: Broadview Press, 1990), 134.

N           6. Charlotte Marcus and others, Investigations into the Phenomenon
        of Limited-Field Criticism
(Boston: Broadview Press, 1990), 134.

N           7. Marcus et al., 175.

B          Marcus, Charlotte, Jerome Waterman, Thomas Gomez, and Elizabeth
        DeLor. Investigations into the Phenomenon of Limited-Field Criticism.
        Boston: Broadview Press, 1990.

Corporate author:
N           8. International Monetary Fund, Surveys of African Economies, vol. 7,
        Algeria, Mali, Morocco, and Tunisia (Washington, D.C.: International
        Monetary Fund, 1977), 27.

N           9. International Monetary Fund, 46.

B           International Monetary Fund. Surveys of African Economies. Vol.7,
         Algeria, Mali, Morocco, and Tunisia. Washington, D.C.: International
        Monetary Fund, 1977.

Edition other than the first:
N          10. John N. Hazard, The Soviet System of Government, 5th ed. (Chicago:
        University of Chicago Press, 1980), 132.

B          Hazard, John N. The Soviet System of Government. 5th ed. Chicago:
        University of Chicago Press, 1980.

Edited work, compilation, or translation: The name of the editor, translator, or compiler takes the place of the author when no author appears on the title page. In notes and bibliography, the abbreviation ed./eds., comp./comp., or trans. follows the name and is preceded by a comma.
N          11. Anthony B. Tortelli, ed., Sociology Approaching the Twenty-first
        Century
(Los Angeles: Peter and Sons, 1991), 59.

N          12. Tortelli, 93.

B           Tortelli, Anthony B., ed. Sociology Approaching the Twenty-first
        Century
. Los Angeles: Peter and Sons, 1991.

ARTICLES IN JOURNALS, MAGAZINES, AND NEWSPAPERS

Basic form:
N          13. Noel Robertson, "The Dorian Migration and Corinthian Ritual,"
        Classical Philology 75 (1980): 17, 19-22.

B          Robertson, Noel. "The Dorian Migration and Corinthian Ritual."
        Classical Philology 75 (1980): 1-22.

With season or month: The name of months are capitalized but lower case is recommended for the names of seasons.
N         14. Ilya Bodonski, "Caring among the Forgotten," Journal of Social
        Activism
14 (fall 1989): 112-34.

B         Bush, Jane R. "Rhetoric and the Instinct for Survival." Political
        Perspectives
29 (March 1990): 45-53.

Issues with numbers only:
N         15. Eva Meyerovich, "The Gnostic Manuscripts of Upper Egypt,"
       Diogenes, no. 25 (1959): 91, 95-98.

B         Meyerovich, Eva. "The Gnostic Manuscripts of Upper Egypt." Diogenes,
        no. 25 (1959): 84-117.

Popular magazines:
N         16. E. W. Caspari and R. E. Marshak, "The Rise and Fall of Lysenko,"
       Science, 16 July 1965, 276.

B        Caspari, E. W., and R. E. Marshak. "The Rise and Fall of Lysenko."
       Science, 16 July 1965, 275-278.

Newspapers:
N         17. Tyler Marshall, "200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated," Los Angeles
        Times
, 15 March 1985,        sec. 1A, p. 3.

B         Marshall, Tyler. "200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated." Los Angeles
        Times
, 15 March 1985, sec. 1A, p. 3.

OTHER SOURCES

Movie reviews:
N         18. Stanley Kauffman, "Turbulent Lives," review of A Dry White
       Season
(MGM movie), New Republic, 9 October 1989, 24-25.

B         Kauffman, Stanley. "Turbulent Lives." Review of A Dry White Season
       (MGM movie). New Republic, 9 October 1989, 24-25.

Book reviews:
N         19. Susan Lardner, "Third Eye Open," review of The Salt Eaters, by
       Toni Cade Bambara, New Yorker, 5 May 1980, 169.

B         Lardner, Susan. "Third Eye Open." Review of The Salt Eaters, by Toni
       Cade Bambara. New Yorker, 5 May 1980, 169.

Interviews:
N         20. McGeorge Bundy, interview by Robert MacNeil, MacNeil/Lehrer
       News Hour
, Public Broadcasting System, 7 February 1990.

B          Bundy, McGeorge. Interview by Robert MacNeil. MacNeil/Lehrer News
       Hour
. Public Broadcasting System, 7 February 1990.

Encyclopedias: Well-known reference books are usually not listed in bibliographies. When they are cited in notes they appear as follows. s.v. (sub verbo) means "under the word".
N         21. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed., s.v. "cold war."

N         22. Dictionary of American Biography, s.v. "Wadsworth, Jeremiah."

CITATIONS IN THE TEXT

Basic form: Consists of the author's last name and the year of publication of the work. No punctuation is used between the author's name and the date. When the reference list or bibliography includes two or more works by different authors with the same last name and the same date, it is necessary to include the author's initials. When there are more than three authors use "et al".

(Blinksworth 1987) (Collins and Wortmaster 1953)
(EPA 1986) (P. Brown 1991)
(Smith, Wessen, and Gunless 1988) (Zipursky et al. 1959)

Placement of text citations: An author-date citation in the text should be placed where it will offer the least resistance to the flow of thought. The best location is just before a mark of punctuation:

Before proceeding . . .we will describe the system of scaling quantitative scores (Guilford 1950).

What conclusions . . . had they been aware of the narrow-aperture principle recently reported (Klein, Cane, and Abbelli 1991)?

ARTICLES RETRIEVED IN ELECTRONIC FORMAT

These guidelines were retrieved from the WWW and are based on the principles presented in the 14th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style.

FOR FOOTNOTES AND ENDNOTES:
Author's name is in normal order followed by the document title, date of Internet publication, <URL> or other retrieval information, date of access, and text division, if applicable.

Book:
     1. Peter J. Bryant, "The Age of Mammals," in Biodiversity Conservation
April 1999, <http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/index.html> (11 May 1999).

Article in electronic journal (ejournal) or magazine (ezine):
     2. Tonya Browning, "Embedded Visuals: Student Design in Web Spaces,"
Kairos: A Journal for Teachers of Writing in Webbed Environments 3, no. 1 (1997),
<http://english.ttu.edu/kairos/2.1/features/browning/index.html> (21 October 1999).

     3. Nathan Myhrvold, "Confessions of a Cybershaman," Slate, 12 June
1997, <http://www.slate.com/CriticalMass/97-06-12/CriticalMass.asp>
(19 October 1997).

Newspaper article:
     4. Christopher Wren, "A Body on Mt. Everest, a Mystery Half-Solved,"
New York Times on the Web, 5 May 1999,
<http://search.nytimes.com/search/daily/bin/fastweb?getdoc+site+site+87604
+0+wAAA+%22a%7Ebody%7Eon%7Emt.%7Everest%22
> (13 May 1999).

Government publication:
     5. George Bush, "Principles of Ethical Conduct for Government Officers
and Employees," Executive Order 12674, 12 April 1989, pt. 1,
<http://www.usoge.gov/exorders/eo12674.html> (30 October 1997).

Professional and personal sites:
     6. Joseph Pellegrino, "Homepage," 12 May 1999,
<http://www.english.eku.edu/pellegrino/default.htm> (12 June 1999).

     7. Gail Mortimer, The William Faulkner Society Home Page, 16 September
1999, <http://www.utep.edu/mortimer/faulkner/mainfaulkner.htm> (19 November
1997).

FOR A BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Authors' names are inverted. The elements of entries are separated by periods. The first line of each entry is flush with the left margin, and subsequent lines are indented three or four spaces.

Article in an electronic journal (ejournal):
Teague, Jason Crawford. "Frames in Action." Kairos: A Journal for Teachers
     of Writing in Webbed Environments
2, no. 1, August 20, 1998.
     <http://english.ttu.edu/kairos/2.1> (7 October 1999).

For more information consult The Chicago Manual of Style (ref desk Z 253 U69 1993) or go to ONLINE! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Resources by Andrew Harnack and Eugene Kleppinger.