The Chicago Manual of Style
Overview: This handout will show you how to create endnotes or footnotes
and a bibliography for both print and electronic formats using The Chicago
Manual of Style. Endnotes or footnotes provide correct bibliographical citation
for the sources noted by number in the text. Footnotes appear at the bottom
of each page. Endnotes appear at the end of each chapter or at the end of the
entire paper. Consult The Chicago Manual of Style for additional or more
detailed information (ref desk Z 253 U69 1993) or go to
ONLINE! A Reference
Guide to Using Internet Resources by Andrew Harnack and Eugene Kleppinger.
(N= footnote/endnote B=bibliography)
N 2. Blackfoot, 97.
B Blackfoot, Emery.
Chance Encounters. Boston: Serendipity Press,
N 4. Unwin and Galloway, 102.
B Unwin, Liam P., and
Joseph Galloway, Peace in Ireland. Boston:
More than three authors: For works having more than three authors, a
note citation should give the name of the first-listed author followed by "et
al." or "and others" without inverting punctuation. In the bibliography
entry, the usual practice is to list all of the authors. The name of the first
author is inverted.
N 6. Charlotte Marcus
and others, Investigations into the Phenomenon
N 7. Marcus et al., 175.
B Marcus, Charlotte, Jerome
Waterman, Thomas Gomez, and Elizabeth
N 9. International Monetary Fund, 46.
Monetary Fund. Surveys of African Economies. Vol.7,
Edition other than the first:
B Hazard, John N. The
Soviet System of Government. 5th ed. Chicago:
Edited work, compilation, or translation: The name of the editor, translator,
or compiler takes the place of the author when no author appears on the title
page. In notes and bibliography, the abbreviation ed./eds., comp./comp.,
or trans. follows the name and is preceded by a comma.
N 12. Tortelli, 93.
B Tortelli, Anthony B.,
ed. Sociology Approaching the Twenty-first
ARTICLES IN JOURNALS, MAGAZINES, AND NEWSPAPERS
B Robertson, Noel. "The
Dorian Migration and Corinthian Ritual."
With season or month: The name of months are capitalized but lower case is
recommended for the names of seasons.
B Bush, Jane R. "Rhetoric
and the Instinct for Survival." Political
Issues with numbers only:
B Meyerovich, Eva. "The Gnostic Manuscripts of Upper Egypt."
B Caspari, E. W., and R. E. Marshak.
"The Rise and Fall of Lysenko."
B Marshall, Tyler. "200th
Birthday of Grimms Celebrated." Los Angeles
B Kauffman, Stanley. "Turbulent
Lives." Review of A Dry White Season
B Lardner, Susan. "Third
Eye Open." Review of The Salt Eaters, by Toni
B Bundy, McGeorge. Interview
by Robert MacNeil. MacNeil/Lehrer News
Encyclopedias: Well-known reference books are usually not listed in
bibliographies. When they are cited in notes they appear as follows. s.v. (sub
verbo) means "under the word".
N 22. Dictionary of American Biography, s.v. "Wadsworth, Jeremiah."
CITATIONS IN THE TEXT
Basic form: Consists of the author's last name and the year of publication of the work. No punctuation is used between the author's name and the date. When the reference list or bibliography includes two or more works by different authors with the same last name and the same date, it is necessary to include the author's initials. When there are more than three authors use "et al".
Placement of text citations: An author-date citation in the text should be placed where it will offer the least resistance to the flow of thought. The best location is just before a mark of punctuation:
Before proceeding . . .we will describe the system of scaling quantitative scores (Guilford 1950).
What conclusions . . . had they been aware of the narrow-aperture principle recently reported (Klein, Cane, and Abbelli 1991)?
ARTICLES RETRIEVED IN ELECTRONIC FORMAT
These guidelines were retrieved from the WWW and are based on the principles presented in the 14th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style.
FOR FOOTNOTES AND ENDNOTES:
Article in electronic journal (ejournal) or magazine (ezine):
3. Nathan Myhrvold, "Confessions of a Cybershaman,"
Slate, 12 June
Professional and personal sites:
7. Gail Mortimer, The William Faulkner Society
Home Page, 16 September
FOR A BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Article in an electronic journal (ejournal):
For more information consult The Chicago Manual of Style (ref desk Z 253 U69 1993) or go to ONLINE! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Resources by Andrew Harnack and Eugene Kleppinger.