STIMULATION


PARALLEL SCIENCES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



DARWIN & SKINNER PARALLEL – Scientific cross-over:

Darwin – set the pattern behaviorism follows. Skinner’s concept of operant is like Darwin’s survival:

DarwinÂ’s: Survival of structures (particular structures)

SkinnerÂ’s: Survival of behavior

A single set of principals explains how we are physically built and how our behaviors are built.

Darwin – certain structures are propagated into the next generation that promotes or facilitates survival:

Ex. Fast cheetah gets food. Boney eye sockets/ridges protect us from injury, blood clotting prevents bleeding to death, eye blink lubricates the eye and clears vision, postural reflex keeps you up right, chewing and swallowing prevent choking.

Contagious reflexes spread socially: yawning and vomiting.

Yawning probably facilitates survival as follows: when it gets dark thereÂ’s not much stimulation going on the individual begins to get sleepy and begins to yawn taking in large breaths of air. The oxygen may keep the individual alert long enough to get to their group for sleep. This would keep the groupÂ’s sleep time in synchronization with each other, for there is safety in numbers and prevent straying away from the group at night when itÂ’s dangerous.

Vomiting probably facilitates survival as follows: when a member of a group would eat something poisonous, they would begin to vomit it out preventing death. As a result, the odor of the vomit would induce vomiting amount the members of the group which would be beneficial being that they probably eat from the same bad food source.  

Classical conditioning (acquired involuntary behavior): helps us to adapt to the environment. The capacity to be classically conditioned is inherited. All these things evolved. We are prepared to learn quickly to things very dangerous. ItÂ’s an advantage to be classically conditioned. The reason a dog salivates to a bell is pairing. This happens because of selection.

Operant conditioning (seemingly voluntary behavior) is also inherited by genetic selection. The reason an animal will press a bar for food is pairing.

Genetic selection is all over. It gives us the capacity to learn these behaviors.

Ex. Sugar doesnÂ’t taste good. It just tastes. ItÂ’s a powerful reinforcer. Lots of sugar (keep spooning sugar in your mouth) doesnÂ’t taste good. It looses itÂ’s reinforcing capacity with your changes in your sugar blood content. ItÂ’s behavior functionalism changed.

We call something good when it is reinforcing (strengthening).

Ex. Chocolate is a reinforcer; it increases the eating behavior of it.

Ex. Quinine water (alkaloid) is a punisher (suppressor) related to baking chocolate (bitter); negative reinforcer to escape it. Feeling good (mental state) is reinforcing – depends on body’s state (blood chemistry)

Once creature that isnÂ’t condition able are lobsters.

INTELLIGENCE:

Humans differ in intelligence in the following manner:

1.     Our susceptibility to reinforcement is greater. We learn faster; our behavior will modify faster. We are champion operant conditioning learners with highly modifiable behavior.

2.     We talk to ourselves. (amplify stimuli)

IQ = rate your behavior is modified which means highly susceptible to reinforcement.

Science is understanding of nature at a profound level.

Intelligence and liking chocolate share reinforcement.

ONE CONCEPT, CAUSAL BY SELECTION, DESCRIBES DARWIN AND SKINNER.

THE PARALLEL BETWEEN DARWIN AND SKINNER:

DARWIN & SKINNER: USE PARSIMONY – THE SIMPLEST CONCEPTS.

TWO TYPES OF CAUSALITY:

1.     Mechanical causality (push/pull) as in physical and mental explorations.

2.     Selective causality: Darwin and Skinner adopt this. The principal is so simple and explains so much.

THE PARALLEL BETWEEN DARWIN & SKINNER:

SKINNER - CONTINGENCY OF REINFORCEMENT

 THE BEHAVIOR/ENVIRONMENT

 

DARWIN - CONTINGENCY OF SURVIVAL

THE BUILD/ENVIRONMENT

 

With Skinner, the contingencies of reinforcement are what controls “voluntary behavior” Operant BehaviorÂ’s causes are generally unseen so people tend to fall back on internal events. Ex. He plays golf well because he is a natural - This is wrong. He plays gold well because of trial and error (discrimination training) which involves reinforcement and extinction. 

With Darwin, the contingencies of survival are what controls physical build of an organism whose causes are generally unseen so people tend to fall back on creationism. Ex. Fish have fins so they can swim - This is wrong. This implies a premeditated plan; however, the future can not control the past. Fish have fins because of inheritance of a genetic gene that was passed on by the parent fish who had an advantage of survival due to this trait and lived long enough to pass this gene onto their offspring.

 



 BACK