ASA FormatAmerican Sociological Association
The American Sociological Association Style Guide is intended for authors who are preparing manuscripts for publication in ASA journals. This handout is intended for students who are instructed to use "ASA style" when writing research papers. Consult the ASA Style Guide for additional or more detailed information (ref desk HM 73 A54 1997).
Citations in Text:
Basic form for citations in the text include the last name of the author(s) and year of publication. Include page number when you quote directly from the work or refer to specific passages.
When Chu (1977) studied
When the study was completed (Jones 1994)
(Smith, Garcia and Lee 1954) (Snow et al. 1989)
"In 1999, however, the data were reported by more specific job types which showed that technologically oriented jobs paid better" (Hildenbrand 1999:47).
Footnotes & Endnotes:
Reference List (Bibliography):
Examples of References:
Books: Basic form for a book entry is:
De Anda, Roberto M. 1995. Chicanas and Chicanos in Contemporary Society. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Herrera-Sobek, MarÃa and Helena MarÃa Viramontes. 1995. Chicana (W)rites: On Word and Film. Berkeley, CA: Third Woman Press.
-Chapter in Book
Nathan, Peter E. and Raymond S. Niaura. 1987. "Prevention of Alcohol Problems." Pp. 333-354 in Treatment and Prevention of Alcohol Problems: A Resource Manual, edited by W.M. Cox. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, Inc.
Manual of Style. 1993. 14th ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
List books with no author alphabetically by the first significant word in the title.Journal Articles in Print: Basic form for a journal article is:
Garcia, Alma M. 1998. "An Intellectual Odyssey: Chicana/Chicano Studies Moving into the Twenty-first Century." Journal of American Ethnic History 18:109.
-Two or More Authors
Exum, William H., Robert J. Menges, Bari Watkins, and Patricia Berglund. 1984. "Making it at the top: Women and minority faculty in the academic labor market." American Behavioral Scientist 27:301-324.
Newspaper & Magazine Articles in Print: Basic form for a newspaper or magazine entry is:
Jana, Reena. 2000. "Preventing culture clashes - As the IT workforce grows more diverse, managers must improve awareness without creating inconsistency." InfoWorld, April 24, pp. 95.
Rimland, Bernard. 2000. "Do children's shots invite autism?" Los Angeles Times, April 26, A13.
Articles Retrieved in Electronic Format
-From Commercial Databases
Graham, Lorie M. 1998. "The Past Never Vanishes: A Contextual Critique of the Existing Indian Family Doctrine" American Indian Law Review, 23:1. Retrieved May 25, 1999. Available: Lexis-Nexis Academic, Law Reviews.
-Web Version of Newspapers
Clary, Mike. 2000. "Vieques Protesters Removed Without Incident." Los Angeles Times, May 5. Retrieved May 5, 2000 (http://www.latimes.com/news/
-Web Base Journals
Smith, Herman W. and Takako Nomi. 2000. "Is Amae the Key to Understanding Japanese Culture?." Electronic Journal of Sociology 5:1. Retrieved May 5, 2000 (http://www.sociology.org/content/
-Information Posted on a Web Site
American Sociological Association. 2000. "Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Workshop." Washington, DC: American Sociological Association, Retrieved May 5, 2000 (http://www.asanet.org/members
-Government Documents: Since the nature of public documents is so varied, the form of entry for documents cannot be standardized. The essential rule is to provide sufficient information so that the reader can locate the reference easily. For example see the following:
United States. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development. 1999. Rehab a home with HUD's 203(k) : HUD and FHA are on your side. Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development.
-Dissertations & Theses
Valencia, Albert. 1995. "An examination of selected characteristics of Mexican-American battered women and implications for service providers." Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Education, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA.
For other more information please see ASA Style Guide (ref desk HM 73 A54 1997).
This Web-based guide was authored by Romelia Salinas. If you have questions,comments,or suggestions about the content of this Library Web page, please send them to Romelia at: email@example.com.